Epithelial Sensing of Microbiota-Derived Signals

The authors highlight the pathways by which intestinal epithelial cells sense microbiota-derived signals and the necessity of these detection pathways in maintaining epithelial barrier integrity.
[Genes & Immunity]
Eshleman, E. M., & Alenghat, T. (2021). Epithelial sensing of microbiota-derived signals. Genes & Immunity, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41435-021-00124-w Cite
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Tumor Immune Microenvironment during Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a critical role in tumor development from initiation to metastasis. EMT could be regarded as a continuum, with intermediate hybrid epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes having high plasticity.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Taki, M., Abiko, K., Ukita, M., Murakami, R., Yamanoi, K., Yamaguchi, K., Hamanishi, J., Baba, T., Matsumura, N., & Mandai, M. (2021). Tumor Immune Microenvironment during Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4459 Cite
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Mutant KRAS Drives Metabolic Reprogramming and Autophagic Flux in Premalignant Pancreatic Cells

The authors report dynamic metabolic reprogramming in immortalized human non-cancerous pancreatic ductal epithelial cells.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Suzuki, T., Kishikawa, T., Sato, T., Takeda, N., Sugiura, Y., Seimiya, T., Sekiba, K., Ohno, M., Iwata, T., Ishibashi, R., Otsuka, M., & Koike, K. (2021). Mutant KRAS drives metabolic reprogramming and autophagic flux in premalignant pancreatic cells. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-021-00326-4 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Drives JAK1/2-Dependent Local Complement Hyperactivation

Scientists unexpectedly found that the complement system was one of the intracellular pathways most highly induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial cells.
[Science Immunology]
Yan, B., Freiwald, T., Chauss, D., Wang, L., West, E., Mirabelli, C., Zhang, C. J., Nichols, E.-M., Malik, N., Gregory, R., Bantscheff, M., Ghidelli-Disse, S., Kolev, M., Frum, T., Spence, J. R., Sexton, J. Z., Alysandratos, K. D., Kotton, D. N., Pittaluga, S., … Kazemian, M. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 drives JAK1/2-dependent local complement hyperactivation. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abg0833 Cite
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Understanding the Cellular Origin and Progression of Esophageal Cancer Using Esophageal Organoids

Patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from human tissue samples allow for unique and faithful in vitro modeling of esophageal cancers, and provide an exciting platform for investigation into personalized medicine and targeted treatment approaches
[Cancer Letters]
Sachdeva, U. M., Shimonosono, M., Flashner, S., Cruz-Acuña, R., Gabre, J. T., & Nakagawa, H. (2021). Understanding the cellular origin and progression of esophageal cancer using esophageal organoids. Cancer Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.03.031 Cite
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MCPIP1-Mediated NFIC Alternative Splicing Inhibits Proliferation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer via Cyclin D1-RB-E2F1 Axis

Investigators showed that monocyte chemotactic protein induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) was downregulated in 80 TNBC tissues and five TNBC cell lines compared to adjacent paracancerous tissues and one human immortalized breast epithelial cell line, while its high expression levels were associated with increased overall survival in TNBC patients.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Chen, F., Wang, Q., Yu, X., Yang, N., Wang, Y., Zeng, Y., Zheng, Z., Zhou, F., & Zhou, Y. (2021). MCPIP1-mediated NFIC alternative splicing inhibits proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer via cyclin D1-Rb-E2F1 axis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03661-4 Cite
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MiR-485 Targets the DTX4 Gene to Regulate Milk Fat Synthesis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

The relationship between the candidate target gene DTX4 and miR-485 was validated by bioinformatics and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Liu, J., Jiang, P., Iqbal, A., Ali, S., Gao, Z., Pan, Z., Xia, L., Yin, F., & Zhao, Z. (2021). MiR-485 targets the DTX4 gene to regulate milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7623. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87139-5 Cite
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Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Mount a Distinct Antiviral Response to Virus-Infected Cells

Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced high amounts of type I interferon when incubated with live cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts but not with free cytomegalovirus
[Science Immunology]
Yun, T. J., Igarashi, S., Zhao, H., Perez, O. A., Pereira, M. R., Zorn, E., Shen, Y., Goodrum, F., Rahman, A., Sims, P. A., Farber, D. L., & Reizis, B. (2021). Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells mount a distinct antiviral response to virus-infected cells. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abc7302 Cite
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Hypoxic and Pharmacological Activation of HIFs Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection of Lung Epithelial Cells

Scientists demonstrated that hypoxia and the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor Roxadustat reduced angiotensin-converting enzyme expression and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in lung epithelial cells via a HIF-1α dependent pathway.
[Cell Reports]
Wing, P. A., Keeley, T. P., Zhuang, X., Lee, J. Y., Prange-Barczynska, M., Tsukuda, S., Morgan, S. B., Harding, A. C., Argles, I. L. A., Kurlekar, S., Noerenberg, M., Thompson, C. P., Huang, K.-Y. A., Balfe, P., Watashi, K., Castello, A., Hinks, T. S., James, W., Ratcliffe, P. J., … McKeating, J. A. (2021). Hypoxic and pharmacological activation of HIFs inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection of lung epithelial cells. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109020 Cite
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Loss of ARID1A Activates mTOR Signaling and SOX9 in Gastric Adenocarcinoma-Rationale for Targeting ARID1A Deficiency

Genomic alterations in AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) were analyzed in gastric adenocarcinoma. Mouse gastric epithelial cells from CK19-Cre-Arid1Afl/fl and wild-type mice were used to determine the activation of oncogenic genes due to loss of Arid1A.
[Gut]
Dong, X., Song, S., Li, Y., Fan, Y., Wang, L., Wang, R., Huo, L., Scott, A., Xu, Y., Pizzi, M. P., Ma, L., Wang, Y., Jin, J., Zhao, W., Yao, X., Johnson, R. L., Wang, L., Wang, Z., Peng, G., & Ajani, J. A. (2021). Loss of ARID1A activates mTOR signaling and SOX9 in gastric adenocarcinoma—rationale for targeting ARID1A deficiency. Gut. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322660 Cite
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Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 Protects against Skin Aging through Skin-Gut Axis Communication

Scientists studied the role of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 in regulating tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells and increasing moisture retention in human dermal fibroblasts cells.
[Molecules]
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