Molecular Mechanisms of Calcium‐Mediated Small Intestinal Glucose and Sodium Absorption through the CICR and the SOCE

Glucose absorption and channel expression were examined in mouse upper jejunal epithelium by Ussing chamber study and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Ca2+ and Na+ imaging was also performed in single intestinal epithelial cells.
[British Journal of Pharmacology]
Molecular Mechanisms of Calcium‐mediated Small Intestinal Glucose and Sodium Absorption through the CICR and the SOCE - Zhang - - British Journal of Pharmacology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.15287 Cite
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Extracellular Cyclic Dinucleotides Induce Polarized Responses in Barrier Epithelial Cells by Adenosine Signaling

Scientists found that cyclic dinucleotides(CDNs) containing adenosine induced a robust CFTR-mediated chloride secretory response together with cAMP-mediated inhibition of Poly I:C-stimulated IFNβ expression. Signal transduction was strictly polarized to the serosal side of the epithelium, dependent on the extracellular and sequential hydrolysis of CDNs to adenosine by the ectonucleosidases ENPP1 and CD73, and occurred via activation of A2B adenosine receptors.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Chang, D., Whiteley, A. T., Gwilt, K. B., Lencer, W. I., Mekalanos, J. J., & Thiagarajah, J. R. (2020). Extracellular cyclic dinucleotides induce polarized responses in barrier epithelial cells by adenosine signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015919117 Cite
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The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates RIP1K and Colorectal Cancer Resistance to Necroptosis

Scientists used a well-established mouse model of sporadic colorectal cancer induced by azoxymethane to determine the possible role of fragile X mental retardation protein in colorectal cancer.
[Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology]
Di Grazia, A., Marafini, I., Pedini, G., Di Fusco, D., Laudisi, F., Dinallo, V., Rosina, E., Stolfi, C., Franzè, E., Sileri, P., Sica, G., Monteleone, G., Bagni, C., & Monteleone, I. (2020). The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein regulates RIP1K and colorectal cancer resistance to necroptosis. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2020.10.009 Cite
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IL-8/CXCR2 Mediates Tropism of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells toward CD133+/CD44+ Colon Cancer Stem Cells

Low concentration of IL‐8 peptide inhibitors (100 ng/ml) and CXC receptor 2 (CXCR2) inhibitors had little effect on the migration of bone marrow‐derived MSCs, but could effectively weaken colon cancer stem cell stemness (CSCs) and promoted dormant CSCs in the coculture system to re‐enter into the cell cycle.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
Ma, X., Chen, J., Liu, J., Xu, B., Liang, X., Yang, X., Feng, Y., Liang, X., & Liu, J. (n.d.). IL-8/CXCR2 mediates tropism of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward CD133+/CD44+ Colon cancer stem cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30080 Cite
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Neddylation Blockade Induces HIF-1α Driven Cancer Cell Migration via Upregulation of ZEB1

Scientists report that inhibiting neddylation activates the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) through the PI3K-Akt pathway, which eventually regulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition-activator zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) in various cancer cell lines.
[Scientific Reports]
Park, J. B., Seo, J., Park, J.-W., & Chun, Y.-S. (2020). Neddylation blockade induces HIF-1α driven cancer cell migration via upregulation of ZEB1. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18210. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75286-0 Cite
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Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells in Lung Repair and Regeneration

The authors focus on the regionally distinct lung epithelial cell types that contribute to repair after injury, and they address current controversies regarding whether elite stem cells or frequent facultative progenitors are the predominant participants.
[Annual Review of Physiology]
Alysandratos, K.-D., Herriges, M. J., & Kotton, D. N. (2021). Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells in Lung Repair and Regeneration. Annual Review of Physiology, 83(1), null. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-041520-092904 Cite
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Amnion-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Suppress Experimental Optic Neuritis and Myelitis

Researchers tested the hypothesis that systemic AMP cell administration could suppress both optic neuritis and myelitis in amnion epithelial cells (EAE). Intravenous and intraperitoneal administration of AMP cells significantly reduced ascending paralysis and attenuated visual dysfunction in EAE mice.
[Neurotherapeutics]
Khan, R. S., Ross, A. G., Willett, K., Dine, K., Banas, R., Brown, L. R., & Shindler, K. S. (2020). Amnion-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Suppress Experimental Optic Neuritis and Myelitis. Neurotherapeutics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-00949-9 Cite
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Application of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells in Regenerative Medicine: A Systematic Review

Investigators focus on summarizing the biological characteristics of human amniotic epithelial cells, therapeutic applications, and recent advances in treating various tissue injuries and disorders.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zhang, Q., & Lai, D. (2020). Application of human amniotic epithelial cells in regenerative medicine: a systematic review. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 439. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01951-w Cite
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The Molecular Basis of Mammary Gland Development and Epithelial Differentiation

Investigators provide an overview of the latest research in the single-cell genomics of mammary gland development, which may help to understand the lineage commitment of mammary stem cells into luminal or basal epithelial cells that constitute the mammary gland.
[Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology]
Slepicka, P. F., Somasundara, A. V. H., & dos Santos, C. O. (2020). The molecular basis of mammary gland development and epithelial differentiation. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.09.014 Cite
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Elimination of Nf-kB Signaling in Vimentin+ Stromal Cells Attenuates Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett Esophagus

To analyze the effect of NF-kB signaling in myofibroblasts (MFs), researchers crossed L2-IL-1B mice to tamoxifen inducible Vim-Cre mice and floxed RelA mice to specifically eliminate NF-kB signaling in MF. The interaction of epithelial cells and stromal cells was further analyzed in mouse Barrett Esophagus organoids and patient-derived human organoids.
[Carcinogenesis]
Anand, A., Fang, H.-Y., Mohammad Shahi, D., Ingermann, J., Baumeister, T., Strangmann, J., Wang, T. C., & Quante, M. (n.d.). Elimination of Nf-kB signaling in Vimentin+ stromal cells attenuates tumorigenesis in a mouse model of Barrett Esophagus. Carcinogenesis. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa109 Cite
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Oncogenic KRAS-Expressing Organoids with Biliary Epithelial Stem Cell Properties Give Rise to Biliary Tract Cancer in Mice

Researchers isolated epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive biliary epithelial cells from the mouse intrahepatic bile duct, gallbladder, and extrahepatic bile duct and established organoids derived from these cells.
[Cancer Science]
Kasuga, A., Semba, T., Sato, R., Nobusue, H., Sugihara, E., Takaishi, H., Kanai, T., Saya, H., & Arima, Y. (n.d.). Oncogenic KRAS–expressing organoids with biliary epithelial stem cell properties give rise to biliary tract cancer in mice. Cancer Science, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/cas.14703 Cite
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