Human Inhibitory Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors: From Immunotolerance to Immunotherapy

The authors discuss the immunoregulatory functions of human LILRBs and the potential of targeting them to manipulate immune responses in various pathologies.
[JCI Insight]
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NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Induced by Venoms Secreted PLAM2s

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient and incubated with RPMI, LPS, BthTX-I or BthTX-II isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom, to evaluate viability, and the results showed that there was no cell death.
[International Journal of Biological Macromolecules]
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Single-Cell Immune Profiling Reveals Functional Diversity of T Cells in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion

Using single-cell transcriptomics and T cell receptor sequencing, scientists analyzed mononuclear cell populations in paired pleural fluid and peripheral blood of tuberculous pleural effusion patients.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
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Novel Inhibitor of Hematopoietic Cell Kinase as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Scientists investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo effects of a novel chemical compound targeting HCK inhibition, in combination with the most used drugs for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and de novo acute myeloid leukemia, 5-Azacytidine and Cytarabine.
[Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy]
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Inhalation of Dimethyl Fumarate-Encapsulated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Attenuate Clinical Signs of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Pulmonary Inflammatory Dysfunction in Mice

Scientists investigated the potential effects of solid lipid nanoparticles containing dimethyl fumarate, administered by inhalation on the clinical signs, central nervous system inflammatory response, and lung function changes in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
[Clinical Science]
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Tumors Resurrect an Embryonic Vascular Program to Escape Immunity

It is assumed that angiogenesis-induced suppression of adhesion molecules is a regulatory function to provide an embryo with immune privileged conditions and allow uninterrupted growth and development. It is becoming clear that similar conditions are used by tumors to evade the immune system and ensure progressive growth.
[Science Immunology]
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IL-13Rα2 Humanized scFv-Based CAR T Cells Exhibit Therapeutic Activity against Glioblastoma with Increased Expansion and Reduced Cytokine Production

Investigators constructed a CAR targeting interleukin-13 receptor α2 according to a murine antibody, and then humanized the single-chain variable fragment sequence to generate another CAR.
[Molecular Therapy-Oncolytics]
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Plasmolipin Regulates Basolateral-to-Apical Transcytosis of ICAM-1 and Leukocyte Adhesion in Polarized Hepatic Epithelial Cells

Researchers investigated the molecular mechanisms that determined intercellular adhesion receptor (ICAM)-1 localization into apical membrane domains of polarized hepatic epithelial cells, and their effect on lymphocyte-hepatic epithelial cell interaction.
[Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences]
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Single-Cell Analysis Reveals the Immune Characteristics of Myeloid Cells and Memory T Cells in Recovered COVID-19 Patients with Different Severities

According to large-scale single-cell analysis, recovered patients, who had severe symptoms, still exhibited peripheral immune disorders one-two months after symptom onset.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
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Generation of a B2M Homozygous Knockout Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Embryonic Stem Cell Line Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

The authors generated a Beta2-microglobulin (B2M) homozygous knockout somatic cell nuclear transfer-induced ESC line using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.
[Stem Cell Research]
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Engineering of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Resistant to Multiple Natural Killer Subtypes

Efforts have been made to generate immune-escaping human embryonic stem cells where T cell immunity was evaded by defecting β-2-microglobulin, a common unit for human leukocyte antigen class I, and NK cells were inhibited via ectopic expression of HLA-E or -G.
[International Journal of Biological Sciences]
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