Unbiased Screens Show CD8+ T Cells of COVID-19 Patients Recognize Shared Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2, Most of which Are Not Located in the Spike Protein

Scientists used an unbiased, genome-wide screening technology to determine the precise peptide sequences in SARS-CoV-2 that are recognized by the memory CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients.
[Immunity]
Ferretti, A. P., Kula, T., Wang, Y., Nguyen, D. M. V., Weinheimer, A., Dunlap, G. S., Xu, Q., Nabilsi, N., Perullo, C. R., Cristofaro, A. W., Whitton, H. J., Virbasius, A., Olivier, K. J., Buckner, L. R., Alistar, A. T., Whitman, E. D., Bertino, S. A., Chattopadhyay, S., & MacBeath, G. (2020). Unbiased screens show CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients recognize shared epitopes in SARS-CoV-2, most of which are not located in the Spike protein. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.006 Cite
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Single-Cell Derived Tumor Organoids Display Diversity in HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

The authors investigated the variability in HLA class I peptide presentation between different clonal cells of the same colorectal cancer patient, using an organoid system.
[Nature Communications]
Demmers, L. C., Kretzschmar, K., Van Hoeck, A., Bar-Epraïm, Y. E., van den Toorn, H. W. P., Koomen, M., van Son, G., van Gorp, J., Pronk, A., Smakman, N., Cuppen, E., Clevers, H., Heck, A. J. R., & Wu, W. (2020). Single-cell derived tumor organoids display diversity in HLA class I peptide presentation. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5338. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19142-9 Cite
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Regional Hyperthermia Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cell Recruitment to Tumor Stroma: Implications for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor Therapy

The authors describe the enhanced recruitment of adoptively applied theranostic sodium iodide symporter-expressing MSCs to tumors in response to regional hyperthermia.
[Molecular Therapy]
Tutter, M., Schug, C., Schmohl, K. A., Urnauer, S., Kitzberger, C., Schwenk, N., Petrini, M., Zach, C., Ziegler, S., Bartenstein, P., Weber, W., Multhoff, G., Wagner, E., Lindner, L. H., Nelson, P. J., & Spitzweg, C. (2020). Regional hyperthermia enhances mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to tumor stroma: Implications for mesenchymal stem cell-based tumor therapy. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.10.009 Cite
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Expression of Leukotriene B4 Receptor 1 Defines Functionally Distinct DCs That Control Allergic Skin Inflammation

By generating Leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-producing enzyme LTA4H knockout mice and CD11c promoter-driven Cre recombinase-expressing BLT1 conditional knockout mice, researchers showed that the migration of BLT1hi dendritic cells exacerbated allergic contact dermatitis.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Koga, T., Sasaki, F., Saeki, K., Tsuchiya, S., Okuno, T., Ohba, M., Ichiki, T., Iwamoto, S., Uzawa, H., Kitajima, K., Meno, C., Nakamura, E., Tada, N., Fukui, Y., Kikuta, J., Ishii, M., Sugimoto, Y., Nakao, M., & Yokomizo, T. (2020). Expression of leukotriene B 4 receptor 1 defines functionally distinct DCs that control allergic skin inflammation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00559-7 Cite
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Capillary Cell-Type Specialization in the Alveolus

Investigators used single-cell analysis to elucidate the cell types, development, renewal and evolution of the alveolar capillary endothelium. They showed that alveolar capillaries were mosaics; similar to the epithelium that lines the alveolus, the alveolar endothelium was made up of two intermingled cell types, with complex ‘Swiss-cheese’-like morphologies and distinct functions.
[Nature]
Gillich, A., Zhang, F., Farmer, C. G., Travaglini, K. J., Tan, S. Y., Gu, M., Zhou, B., Feinstein, J. A., Krasnow, M. A., & Metzger, R. J. (2020). Capillary cell-type specialization in the alveolus. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2822-7 Cite
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Inherited Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Risk Affects Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Scientists used gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to myeloproliferative neoplasms risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk.
[Nature]
Bao, E. L., Nandakumar, S. K., Liao, X., Bick, A. G., Karjalainen, J., Tabaka, M., Gan, O. I., Havulinna, A. S., Kiiskinen, T. T. J., Lareau, C. A., de Lapuente Portilla, A. L., Li, B., Emdin, C., Codd, V., Nelson, C. P., Walker, C. J., Churchhouse, C., de la Chapelle, A., Klein, D. E., … Sankaran, V. G. (2020). Inherited myeloproliferative neoplasm risk affects haematopoietic stem cells. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2786-7 Cite
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CAR-T Cells Targeting a Nucleophosmin Neoepitope Exhibit Potent Specific Activity in Mouse Models of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Scientists report a human single-chain variable fragment, identified via yeast surface display, that specifically bound to the NPM1c epitope–HLA-A2 complex but not to HLA-A2 or to HLA-A2 loaded with control peptides
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
Xie, G., Ivica, N. A., Jia, B., Li, Y., Dong, H., Liang, Y., Brown, D., Rizwan, R., & Chen, J. (2020). CAR-T cells targeting a nucleophosmin neoepitope exhibit potent specific activity in mouse models of acute myeloid leukaemia. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-020-00625-5 Cite
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Individual HLAs Influence Immunological Events in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from HLA-Identical Sibling Donors

Scientists retrospectively analyzed 4392 patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received transplants from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donors to investigate the effects of HLAs on acute graft-versus-host disease.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Morishima, S., Fukuda, T., Doki, N., Mori, T., Onizuka, M., Kawakita, T., Kato, C., Ozawa, Y., Tanaka, M., Kurokawa, M., Kamimura, T., Inoue, M., Tanaka, J., Ichinohe, T., Atsuta, Y., & Morishima, Y. (2020). Individual HLAs influence immunological events in allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01070-3 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing Shift in the Interaction Pattern between Glioma Stem Cells and Immune Cells during Tumorigenesis

Single-cell sequencing data from seven surgical specimens of glioblastoma patients and patient-derived glioma stem cells co-cultured with peripheral leukocytes were used for the analysis.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
Zhai, Y., Li, G., Li, R., Chang, Y., Feng, Y., Wang, D., Wu, F., & Zhang, W. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing Shift in the Interaction Pattern Between Glioma Stem Cells and Immune Cells During Tumorigenesis. Frontiers in Immunology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.581209 Cite
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FBXO11 Is a Candidate Tumor Suppressor in the Leukemic Transformation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Investigators report that loss of the F-Box protein FBXO11, a component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, conferred cytokine independent growth to MDS-L cells, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for FBXO11 in myeloid malignancies.
[Blood Cancer Journal]
Schieber, M., Marinaccio, C., Bolanos, L. C., Haffey, W. D., Greis, K. D., Starczynowski, D. T., & Crispino, J. D. (2020). FBXO11 is a candidate tumor suppressor in the leukemic transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood Cancer Journal, 10(10), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00362-7 Cite
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The Immune Receptor CD300e Negatively Regulates T Cell Activation by Impairing the STAT1-Dependent Antigen Presentation

Scientists demonstrated that the ligation of CD300e in monocytes hampered the expression of the human leukocyte antigen class II, affecting its synthesis.
[Scientific Reports]
Coletta, S., Salvi, V., Della Bella, C., Bertocco, A., Lonardi, S., Trevellin, E., Fassan, M., D’Elios, M. M., Vermi, W., Vettor, R., Cagnin, S., Sozzani, S., Codolo, G., & de Bernard, M. (2020). The immune receptor CD300e negatively regulates T cell activation by impairing the STAT1-dependent antigen presentation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16501. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73552-9 Cite
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