Tissue-Specific Endothelial Cell Heterogeneity Contributes to Unequal Inflammatory Responses

The inducible inflammatory phenotypes of endothelial cell from heart, lung, kidney, and liver were characterized in vitro, focused on expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines, and recruitment of allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Gunawardana, H., Romero, T., Yao, N., Heidt, S., Mulder, A., Elashoff, D. A., & Valenzuela, N. M. (2021). Tissue-specific endothelial cell heterogeneity contributes to unequal inflammatory responses. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1949. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80102-w Cite
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The Adverse Events of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Are Associated with Gene Polymorphism within Human Leukocyte Antigen Region

Scientists investigated the correlation between the gene polymorphisms within the HLA region and the adverse reactions of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute leukemia, where 72 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 104 were acute myeloid leukemia.
[Scientific Reports]
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LECT2 as a Hepatokine Links Liver Steatosis to Inflammation via Activating Tissue Macrophages in NASH

Hepatic expression of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) was upregulated in association with the inflammatory signature in human liver tissues. The elevation of LECT2 shifted liver residual macrophage to the M1-like phenotype, and contributed to the development of liver inflammation.
[Scientific Reports]
Takata, N., Ishii, K., Takayama, H., Nagashimada, M., Kamoshita, K., Tanaka, T., Kikuchi, A., Takeshita, Y., Matsumoto, Y., Ota, T., Yamamoto, Y., Yamagoe, S., Seki, A., Sakai, Y., Kaneko, S., & Takamura, T. (2021). LECT2 as a hepatokine links liver steatosis to inflammation via activating tissue macrophages in NASH. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 555. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80689-0 Cite
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Critical Role of Synovial Tissue–Resident Macrophage Niche in Joint Homeostasis and Suppression of Chronic Inflammation

During synovial tissue homeostasis, both monocyte-derived F4/80int and self-renewing F4/80hi tissue–resident, macrophage populations were identified.
[Science Advances]
Huang, Q.-Q., Doyle, R., Chen, S.-Y., Sheng, Q., Misharin, A. V., Mao, Q., Winter, D. R., & Pope, R. M. (2021). Critical role of synovial tissue–resident macrophage niche in joint homeostasis and suppression of chronic inflammation. Science Advances, 7(2), eabd0515. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd0515 Cite
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Single-Cell Profiling of the Human Decidual Immune Microenvironment in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Scientists profiled the respective transcriptomes of 18,646 primary human decidual immune cells isolated from patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and healthy controls at single-cell resolution.
[Cell Discovery]
Guo, C., Cai, P., Jin, L., Sha, Q., Yu, Q., Zhang, W., Jiang, C., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Li, K., Fang, J., Lu, F., Wang, Y., Li, D., Lin, J., Li, L., Zeng, Z., Tong, X., Wei, H., & Qu, K. (2021). Single-cell profiling of the human decidual immune microenvironment in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Cell Discovery, 7(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00236-z Cite
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Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Therapy Improves Survival After Radiation Injury but Does Not Restore Endogenous Hematopoiesis

Scientists examine the efficacy of a human bone marrow-derived MSC therapy delivered at three or 30 hours in ameliorating radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome and show that pancytopenia persists despite MSC therapy.
[Scientific Reports]
Diaz, M. F., Horton, P. lina D., Dumbali, S. P., Kumar, A., Livingston, M., Skibber, M. A., Mohammadalipour, A., Gill, B. S., Zhang, S., Cox, C. S., & Wenzel, P. L. (2020). Bone marrow stromal cell therapy improves survival after radiation injury but does not restore endogenous hematopoiesis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 22211. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79278-y Cite
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Impact of HLA Class I Allele-Level Mismatch on Viral Infection within 100 Days after Cord Blood Transplantation

Overall HLA class I mismatch was also a significant risk factor and the predictor of post-cord blood transplantation viral infection, probably due to the insufficient cytotoxic T cell recognition and dendritic cell priming.
[Scientific Reports]
Iemura, T., Arai, Y., Kanda, J., Kitawaki, T., Hishizawa, M., Kondo, T., Yamashita, K., & Takaori-Kondo, A. (2020). Impact of HLA class I allele-level mismatch on viral infection within 100 days after cord blood transplantation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21150. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78259-5 Cite
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Lymph Nodes Are Innervated by a Unique Population of Sensory Neurons With Immunomodulatory Potential

Using high-resolution imaging, viral tracing, single-cell transcriptomics, and optogenetics, researchers identified and functionally tested a sensory neuro-immune circuit that is responsive to lymph-borne inflammatory signals.
[Cell]
Huang, S., Ziegler, C. G. K., Austin, J., Mannoun, N., Vukovic, M., Ordovas-Montanes, J., Shalek, A. K., & Andrian, U. H. von. (2020). Lymph nodes are innervated by a unique population of sensory neurons with immunomodulatory potential. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.028 Cite
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Inhibition of RANK Signaling in Breast Cancer Induces an Anti-Tumor Immune Response Orchestrated by CD8+ T Cells

The authors report that loss of RANK signaling in mouse tumor cells increased leukocytes, lymphocytes, and CD8+ T cells, and reduced macrophage and neutrophil infiltration.
[Nature Communications]
Gómez-Aleza, C., Nguyen, B., Yoldi, G., Ciscar, M., Barranco, A., Hernández-Jiménez, E., Maetens, M., Salgado, R., Zafeiroglou, M., Pellegrini, P., Venet, D., Garaud, S., Trinidad, E. M., Benítez, S., Vuylsteke, P., Polastro, L., Wildiers, H., Simon, P., Lindeman, G., … González-Suárez, E. (2020). Inhibition of RANK signaling in breast cancer induces an anti-tumor immune response orchestrated by CD8+ T cells. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6335. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20138-8 Cite
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Distinct Inflammatory Profiles Distinguish COVID-19 from Influenza with Limited Contributions from Cytokine Storm

Scientists studied the immune responses in COVID-19 and influenza patients. Compared to patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 exhibited largely equivalent lymphocyte counts, fewer monocytes, and lower surface human leukocyte antigen-class II expression on selected monocyte populations.
[Science Advances]
Mudd, P. A., Crawford, J. C., Turner, J. S., Souquette, A., Reynolds, D., Bender, D., Bosanquet, J. P., Anand, N. J., Striker, D. A., Martin, R. S., Boon, A. C. M., House, S. L., Remy, K. E., Hotchkiss, R. S., Presti, R. M., O’Halloran, J. A., Powderly, W. G., Thomas, P. G., & Ellebedy, A. H. (2020). Distinct inflammatory profiles distinguish COVID-19 from influenza with limited contributions from cytokine storm. Science Advances, 6(50), eabe3024. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe3024 Cite
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Syndecan-3 Regulates MSC Adhesion, ERK and AKT Signaling In Vitro and Its Deletion Enhances MSC Efficacy in a Model of Inflammatory Arthritis In Vivo

MSCs isolated from bone marrow of wild type and Sdc3−/− mice were used to assess immunophenotype, differentiation, adhesion and migration properties and cell signaling pathways.
[Scientific Reports]
Jones, F. K., Stefan, A., Kay, A. G., Hyland, M., Morgan, R., Forsyth, N. R., Pisconti, A., & Kehoe, O. (2020). Syndecan-3 regulates MSC adhesion, ERK and AKT signalling in vitro and its deletion enhances MSC efficacy in a model of inflammatory arthritis in vivo. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20487. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77514-z Cite
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