Inflammation during Post-Injury Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

The authors present the interactions that leukocytes develop with the cells present in their vicinity, such as the activation of muscle stem cells and the maturation of newly formed myofibers, and the impact they have on skeletal muscle regeneration.
[Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology]
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Integrin β7 Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis via Maintaining Anti-Tumor Immunity

Researchers found that the number of β7+ cells decreased significantly in tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. β7 expression decreased in tumor-derived compared to normal tissue-derived CD8+ T cells.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
Zhang, Y., Xie, R., Zhang, H., Zheng, Y., Lin, C., Yang, L., Huang, M., Li, M., Song, F., Lu, L., Yang, M., Liu, Y., Wei, Q., Li, J., & Chen, J. (2021). Integrin β7 inhibits colorectal cancer pathogenesis via maintaining anti-tumor immunity. Cancer Immunology Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0879 Cite
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AMPK Activates Parkin Independent Autophagy and Improves Post Sepsis Immune Defense against Secondary Bacterial Lung Infections

Scientists showed acquired Parkin and AMPK deficiency in leukocytes of post-sepsis immunosuppression from human subjects and mice.
[Scientific Reports]
Bone, N. B., Becker, E. J., Husain, M., Jiang, S., Zmijewska, A. A., Park, D.-W., Chacko, B., Darley-Usmar, V., Grégoire, M., Tadie, J.-M., Thannickal, V. J., & Zmijewski, J. W. (2021). AMPK activates Parkin independent autophagy and improves post sepsis immune defense against secondary bacterial lung infections. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12387. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90573-0 Cite
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Tissue-Resident Macrophages Provide a Pro-tumorigenic Niche to Early NSCLC Cells

To explore the diversity of the macrophage compartment in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) lesions, researchers performed single-cell RNA sequencing of tumour-associated leukocytes.
[Nature]
Casanova-Acebes, M., Dalla, E., Leader, A. M., LeBerichel, J., Nikolic, J., Morales, B. M., Brown, M., Chang, C., Troncoso, L., Chen, S. T., Sastre-Perona, A., Park, M. D., Tabachnikova, A., Dhainaut, M., Hamon, P., Maier, B., Sawai, C. M., Agulló-Pascual, E., Schober, M., … Merad, M. (2021). Tissue-resident macrophages provide a pro-tumorigenic niche to early NSCLC cells. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03651-8 Cite
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PI3K Inhibitors Are Finally Coming of Age

The authors summarize key discoveries that aid the clinical translation of PI3Kα and PI3Kδ inhibitors, including the PI3Kα isoform-selective inhibitor alpelisib for the treatment of breast cancer, highlighting lessons learnt and future opportunities.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]
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Tissue-Resident Macrophages Provide a Pro-tumorigenic Niche to Early NSCLC Cells

Researchers identified distinct populations of macrophages that were enriched in human and mouse lung tumors.
[Nature]
Casanova-Acebes, M., Dalla, E., Leader, A. M., LeBerichel, J., Nikolic, J., Morales, B. M., Brown, M., Chang, C., Troncoso, L., Chen, S. T., Sastre-Perona, A., Park, M. D., Tabachnikova, A., Dhainaut, M., Hamon, P., Maier, B., Sawai, C. M., Agulló-Pascual, E., Schober, M., … Merad, M. (2021). Tissue-resident macrophages provide a pro-tumorigenic niche to early NSCLC cells. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03651-8 Cite
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Human Oral Mucosa Cell Atlas Reveals a Stromal-Neutrophil Axis Regulating Tissue Immunity

To aid in understanding tissue-specific pathophysiology, researchers compiled a single-cell transcriptome atlas of human oral mucosa in healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis.
[Cell]
Williams, D. W., Greenwell-Wild, T., Brenchley, L., Dutzan, N., Overmiller, A., Sawaya, A. P., Webb, S., Martin, D., Hajishengallis, G., Divaris, K., Morasso, M., Haniffa, M., & Moutsopoulos, N. M. (2021). Human oral mucosa cell atlas reveals a stromal-neutrophil axis regulating tissue immunity. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.013 Cite
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Complement System in Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease

In this review, scientists present a compendium of studies evaluating the role of complement in human and murine models of associated liver disease.
[Immunology Letters]
Complement System in Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease. (2021). Immunology Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2021.05.007 Cite
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Serum Free Culture for the Expansion and Study of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells

Researchers demonstrated for the first time a methodology allowing mouse type 2 innate lymphoid cells to be cultured, and their numbers expanded in serum-free medium supplemented with Interleukins IL-33, IL-2, IL-7 and TSLP.
[Scientific Reports]
de Lucía Finkel, P., Sherwood, C., Saranchova, I., Xia, W., Munro, L., Pfeifer, C. G., Piret, J. M., & Jefferies, W. A. (2021). Serum free culture for the expansion and study of type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12233. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91500-z Cite
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Surfactant Protein a Modulates the Activities of the JAK/STAT Pathway in Suppressing Th1 and Th17 Polarization in Murine OVA-Induced Allergic Asthma

The authors conducted a study to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of surfactant protein A in OVA-induced asthmatic mice.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Chen, X., Yue, R., Li, X., Ye, W., Gu, W., & Guo, X. (2021). Surfactant protein A modulates the activities of the JAK/STAT pathway in suppressing Th1 and Th17 polarization in murine OVA-induced allergic asthma. Laboratory Investigation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00618-1 Cite
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Identification of Presented SARS-CoV-2 HLA Class I and HLA Class II Peptides Using HLA-Peptidomics

Utilizing HLA-peptidomics researchers were able to identify SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides presented by highly prevalent HLA Class-I (HLA-I) molecules using infected cells as well as overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 genes.
[Cell Reports]
Nagler, A., Kalaora, S., Barbolin, C., Gangaev, A., Ketelaars, S. L. C., Alon, M., Pai, J., Benedek, G., Yahalom-Ronen, Y., Erez, N., Greenberg, P., Yagel, G., Peri, A., Levin, Y., Satpathy, A. T., Bar-Haim, E., Paran, N., Kvistborg, P., & Samuels, Y. (2021). Identification of presented SARS-CoV-2 HLA class I and HLA class II peptides using HLA-peptidomics. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109305 Cite
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